Morphology - Unit Three - Lesson No. 16
Other types of affixes include infixes, superfixes and circumfixes.
An infix is a word-element that is inserted into the middle of a word to form another word. In Tagolog, a language in Philippines, -um means “ one who did something”. The following examples will show how this morpheme is inserted into a root in the form of an infix (from Thakur 1997: 9).
English only has infixing deviantly, whether creative or poetic. The following example is taken from Trask (2007: 9):
Superfixes are affixes which are placed ‘on top of’ a word in the sense of stress or pronunciation variation. The English nouns ‘ record (a vinyl music disc)’ and ‘ contest (a competition)’ are distinguished from the related verbs reCORD and contest only by a change in the placement of the stress.
In simple words, a circumfix is an affix that is a combination of a prefix and a suffix. Some languages have circumfixes, morphemes that are attached to a base morpheme both initially and finally. These are sometimes called discontinuous morphemes. In Chickasaw, a Muskogean language spoken in Oklahoma, the negative is formed with both a prefix ik- and the suffix –o. The final vowel of the affirmative is dropped before the negative suffix is added. Examples of this circumfixing are:
|chokma||“he is good’||ik + chokm + o||“he isn’t good”|
|lakna||“it’s yellow”||ik + lakn + o||“it isn’t yellow”|
|palli||“it is hot”||ik + pall + o||“it isn’t hot”|
|tiwwi||“he opens (it)”||ik + tiww + o||“he doesn’t open (it)”|
In conclusion, the German root lieb means “love” and its past form is obtained by adding the prefix ge- and the suffix –t; thus, geliebt means “loved” or “beloved”, when used as an adjective (Fromkin et al 2007: 81).